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Explosion Bonding & Cladding

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Explosion Bonding & Cladding Explosion Bonding & Cladding

What is Explosion Bonding?
Explosion Bonding & Cladding - the Process Mechanism

The explosion bonding process is based on utilizing the impulse from the running detonation of a high explosive to accelerate a metal cladding component to a high velocity. The cladding component, after moving across a standoff gap or separation distance, collides with a stationary metal base component. The collision is characterized by the velocity of the cladding component and the angle of collision between the two components.

When these conditions are within certain well defined limits, as dictated by the metals or alloys being bonded, flow and hydrodynamic jetting of the surface layers of the two metals occur and the metals are welded or bonded together. The jet serves as the mechanism to clean away all oxides, absorbed gases and other surface contaminants. Due to the angled collision, this high velocity stream of material (jet) which is expelled from the collision zone leaving behind uncontaminated metal surfaces in intimate contact for the metallurgical bond to occur. When proper welding conditions are employed, the residual heat generated by the process is negligible thus giving it the capability of bonding a wide variety of dissimilar metals combinations.

Picture: Metallographic image of wave formation at the interface of Alloy 718 explosion clad to Copper.

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Examples of Explosion Bonded / Clad Products

Benefits of Using Explosion Bonding Approach for Cladding Materials
Explosion bonding has many advantages over other processes for cladding alloy metals onto backer substrates. Benefits of using this method include:
  • Combines unique properties of two or more metal alloys that cannot be clad by any other technique
  • Room temperature process with no heat affected zone or adverse metallurgical effects
  • Cost effectiveness
  • Fast turnaround times
  • Superior bond quality and integrity
Backer Materials
Backers are the base materials used to provide the strength and integrity of the final clad piece. They normally consist of a thicker plate of carbon steel; however, this material may occasionally be stainless steel or another alloy. Backers can be clad on either one or both sides with the same or different clad materials. They are generally considerably less expensive than the clad materials being bonded to them. Backers can typically range from 1/4 to 14+ inches thick.
Cladding Materials
The cladding material or ‘cladder’ is typically a thinner plate of material than the backer. Its purpose is to provide the desired material performance characteristics to the surface of the finished part such as corrosion protection. Clads may range from a few thousands of an inch to one-inch thick. Clads can be selected from a wide range of materials including:
  • Stainless Steel (austenitic, martensetic, ferritic, duplex and super duplex)
  • Nickel and Nickel Alloys
  • Copper and Copper Alloys
  • Corrosion Resistant Alloys
  • Titanium
  • Zirconium
  • Precious Metals

*With a few exceptions, almost all metals can be clad. Please contact us for more details on materials selection and availability.

Part Geometry
Regal Technology predominately produces flat explosion clad blanks for our clients to use in their subsequent fabrication processes. We produce clad sheets, plates or discs in sizes up to 100 sq. ft. in area depending on the thickness of the cladder. In addition to flat products, Regal Technology has an extensive background and capability to produce cylindrical clad products. Please contact us for more specifics on our cylindrical cladding capabilities.

Examples of Explosion Bonded / Clad Products

Example 1
1/16" Haynes Ultimet Alloy explosion clad to 1-5/8" Copper Example 1 Example 1
Example 2
110" diameter semi-circular tubesheet blank. This piece is made from 5/8" Titanium (Gr.1) explosion clad on 2" SA516-70 Steel. Example 2 Example 2
Example 3
109" diameter disc. Consists of 1/4" C2000 Alloy explosion clad on 1-3/4" 304L Stainless Steel. Example 3 Example 3
Example 4
Waterjet Cut Parts (90-10 CuNi on SA516-70N Steel) waiting final processing. Example 4 Example 4
Example 5
317 Stainless Steel Dual Clad with SA516-70N Steel Core Example 5 Example 5
Example 6
Machined Parts Ready to Package for Shipment Example 6 Example 6
Example 7
Various Explosion Bonded Tubular Transition Joints Example 7 Example 7

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